麻豆学生精品版

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麻豆学生精品版 Discoveries

Healing, and improving the overall health of society, begins with discovery. The pursuit of new knowledge advances the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the diseases and injuries of the community. Throughout our history, the pioneering students, faculty, scientists and physicians at the 麻豆学生精品版 have spearheaded groundbreaking research, and helped 麻豆学生精品版grow into a major national research center, and the largest private research institution in Wisconsin. Every discovery translates into advances in academic medicine and patient care, and helps improve the vitality of our communities, and our future.   LEARN MORE
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Major Discoveries from the 麻豆学生精品版

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1930s-1970s

1932
The Quick Test, the first standardized assay for the measurement of coagulation other than whole blood clotting time, was discovered. (Armand Quick, PhD, Biochemistry)

1939
Developed the first self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) devices used by deep-sea divers to prevent 鈥渢he bends.鈥 (Edgar End, PhD, Physiology)

Discovered that hyperbaric oxygenation dramatically reduces red cell agglutination, a significant advance in the prevention of 鈥渢he bends鈥 during rapid decompression. (Edgar End, PhD, Physiology)

1947
Developed the Milwaukee Brace, considered in the past to be the gold standard worldwide for the conservative treatment of scoliosis. (Walter Blount, MD, Orthopaedic Surgery)

1958
Discovered Hemoglobin-M, which has led to a better understanding of the mechanisms by which hemoglobin transports oxygen in the blood. (Anthony Pisciotta, MD, Robert A. Uihlein Jr. Professor in Hematologic Research, Medicine 鈥 Hematology/Oncology)

1970
First in America to document Lyme Disease in a patient and pioneer treatment. (Rudolph Scrimenti, MD, Dermatology)

1972
Developed the first rapid, accurate blood screening test to detect lead poisoning. (Frederic Blodgett, MD, Pediatrics)

1975
Demonstrated in a preclinical model that graft versus host and graft versus leukemia effects could be separated. (Mortimer M. Bortin, MD and Robert Truitt, PhD, Pediatrics and Biostatistics)

1976
Developed the model for exchange transfusions for the treatment of Reye鈥檚 Syndrome. (Richard Aster, MD, Hematology/Oncology)

1977
First to identify Pseudogout, a form of arthritis in which crystal (as opposed to calcium, which is associated with gout) deposits in large joints (knees, ankles, wrists). (Daniel McCarty, MD, Will & Cava Ross Professor in Medicine, Medicine 鈥 Rheumatology)

1980s

1981
Developed cervicography – a diagnostic medical procedure that allows non-physicians to take pictures of the cervix and submit them to a physician for interpretation. (Adolf Stafl, MD, Obstetrics/ Gynecology)

1983
First to characterize immunologic abnormalities (later found to be associated with HIV) in patients with hemophilia transfused with commercial anti-hemophilic factor products. (Joan Gill, MD, and Robert Montgomery, MD, Pediatrics)

1984
Identified the connection between pituitary gland imbalances and female infertility. (Joseph Cusick, MD, Neurosurgery)

1985
Developed surface coils used to improve Magnetic Resonance Imaging diagnosis. (James Hyde, PhD, James S. Hyde Professor in Biophysics, Biophysics)

1986
Identified variances in body fat distribution in women that create increased risks for diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. (Ahmed Kissebah, MD, PhD, Medicine – Endocrinology)

First to use a light-activated dye (Merocyanine 540) to eliminate tumor cells from the bone marrow of a leukemia patient. (Fritz Sieber, PhD, Pediatrics)

1987
Developed a systematic approach for the evaluation and treatment of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome through observing nine cases of NMS. (Harold H. Harsch, MD, Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine)

Devised a monitoring system for myocardial ischemia during cardiovascular surgery. (John P. Kampine MD, PhD, John P. Kampine Professor of Anesthesiology, Anesthesiology)

1988
First time epidemiology and pathogenesis of late-onset vascular graft infections characterized. (Charles E. Edmiston, Jr., PhD, D.D. Schmitt MD, Gary R. Seabrook, MD, Surgery)

First to show protection against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury by isoflurane and halothane. (David C. Warltier, MD, PhD, John P. Kampine Professor in Anesthesiology, Anesthesiology)

First identified that anaerobic bacteria played a major role in recurrent non-puerperal breast abscess, necessitating changes in antimicrobial therapy. (Alonzo P. Walker, MD, Ruth Teske Professor in Surgical Oncology, Charles E. Edmiston, Jr., MD, C.J. Krepel, and Robert E. Condon, MD, Donald C. Ausman Family Foundation Professor of Surgery, Surgery)

1990s

1990
Conducted the pioneering work on T-cell depletion for use in unrelated bone marrow transplantation. (Robert Ash, MD, Medicine - Hematology/Oncology)

In collaboration with investigators at National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (Bethesda, MD), discovered that treatment of blood with photosensitizing dye and light can prevent the transmission of malaria parasites by blood transfusions. (Fritz Sieber, PhD, Pediatrics)

Discovered a treatment for cytomegalovirus pneumonia which was a nearly uniformly fatal infectious complication in bone marrow transplant recipients. (Robert Ash, MD, Medicine – Hematology/Oncology)

Provided convincing clinical evidence for the role of graft-versus-leukemia (even in the absence of graft-versus-host disease) in the efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in eradicating leukemia. (Mary M. Horowitz, MD, MS, Robert A. Uihlein, Jr. Professor in Hematologic Research, Medicine – Hematology/Oncology)

1991
First characterization of the role of Peptostreptococcus collagenase activity in the pathogenesis of non-puerperal breast infections. (C.J. Krepel, C.M. Gohr, Charles E. Edmiston, Jr., PhD, Surgery and Silas G. Farmer, PhD, Pathology.)

First observation that small bowel transplantation promotes bacterial overgrowth and translocation. (B.J. Browne, Christopher P. Johnson, MD, Charles E. Edmiston, Jr., PhD, MA, Hlava, G.H. Moore, Allen M. Roza, MD, Gordon L. Telford, MD, and Mark B. Adams, MD, Donald C. Ausman Family Foundation Professor of Surgery, Surgery)

First detailed description of undisturbed spinal epidural space anatomy in humans. (Quinn Hogan, MD, Anesthesiology)

1992
First in utero fetoscopic placental laser surgery in an identical triplet pregnancy affected by twin-twin transfusion syndrome. (Julian De Lia, MD and Dwight Cruikshank, MD, Jack A. & Elaine D. Klieger Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Obstetrics/Gynecology)

With investigators at Harvard University and the University of Minnesota, developed a new technology, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), which allows for the non-invasive assessment of brain function and the observation of blood flow in the brain in real time. (James Hyde, PhD, James S. Hyde Professor in Biophysics, Biophysics)

Discovered that ATP, a sensitive potassium channel, was a key component of ischemic preconditioning in the heart. The discovery has resulted in new drugs, currently in development, focused on reducing injury in patients with coronary artery disease. (Garrett Gross, PhD, and John Auchampach, PhD, Pharmacology and Toxicology)

Discovery that ACE inhibitors could be used post-irradiation to decrease experimental radiation-induced normal tissue injuries. (John E. Moulder, PhD, Radiation Oncology; Eric P Cohen, MD, Medicine)

Discovered that although domestic violence and abuse is commonplace (38.8% of participants had experienced abuse in lifetime), physicians rarely ask patients about it. (L. Kevin Hamberger, PhD, D. G. Saunders, and M. Hovey, Family and Community Medicine)

Discovered that untreated diabetes promotes intestinal bacterial overgrowth. (Allen M. Rosa, MD, Charles E. Edmiston, Jr. PhD, Constantine T. Frantzides, MD; G.H. Moore, Christopher P. Johnson, MD, and Mark B. Adams, MD, Donald C. Ausman Family Foundation Professor of Surgery, Surgery; and T.V. Nowak, Medicine)

1993
First demonstration in North America that infusion of T lymphocytes obtained from the original bone marrow donor could re-induce durable remissions in patients who had relapsed from their disease after bone marrow transplantation. (William Drobyski, MD, Medicine-Hematology/Oncology)

Invented new compounds that inhibit thiol synthesis for use in treating asthma. (Owen Griffith, PhD, Biochemistry)

1994
Identified latex hypersensitivity due to environmental exposure as a potentially lethal threat to health care workers and chronically exposed children. (Kevin J. Kelly, MD, Pediatrics & Medicine)

First to identify human herpes virus 6 as a pathogen that can cause encephalitis and bone marrow suppression in bone marrow transplant recipients. (Don Carrigan, PhD, Pathology and William Drobyski, MD, Medicine-Hematology/Oncology)

Identified cells in the embryo that signal adjacent cells to develop into the heart; these signals provided an understanding of how stem cells could be directed to develop into heart cells for therapeutic purposes. (John Lough, PhD, Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy)

1995
Developed intraoperative and post-operative techniques that have resulted in the nation’s best outcomes for hypoplastic left heart syndrome surgery. (Peter Frommelt, MD, Pediatrics)

Discovered that opioids, such as morphine, have powerful cardioprotective properties. This finding suggests that opioids given to patients suffering a heart attack may reduce the severity of cardiac damage. (Garrett Gross, PhD, and Joel Schultz, PhD, Pharmacology and Toxicology)

Documented clinical efficacy of antibiotic-lock to treat central line infections in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition. (E. Krzywda, D. Andris, Edward Quebbeman, MD, PhD, and Charles E. Edmiston, Jr., PhD, Surgery)

1996
Identified genes associated with the presence and severity of color blindness. (Jay Neitz, PhD, R.D. & Linda Peters Professor in Ophthalmology, Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, and Maureen Neitz, PhD, Richard O. Schultz/Ruth Works Professor in Ophthalmology Research, Ophthalmology)

Invented a diagnostic test for color blindness. (Jay Neitz, PhD, R.D. & Linda Peters Professor in Ophthalmology, Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, and Maureen Neitz, PhD, Richard O. Schultz/Ruth Works Professor in Ophthalmology Research, Ophthalmology)

Discovered antagonists/agonists of 20-HETE, creating a new pathway for the creation of drugs to treat blood pressure disorders and stroke. (Richard Roman, PhD, Physiology)

Identification of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids as endogenous endothelial vasodilators. (William B. Campbell, PhD, Pharmacology and Toxicology)

Made first direct measurements of spinal CSF volume in humans. (Quinn H. Hogan, MD, Robert Prost, BS, Alexander Kulier, MD, Mary Lou Taylor, PhD, Spencer Liu, MD, and Leighton Mark, MD, Anesthesiology)

1997
Discovered a new intervention strategy for reducing HIV risk behavior at a community level by enlisting popular opinion leaders to endorse and advocate protective behavior change to others. (Jeffrey A. Kelly, PhD, Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine/Center for AIDS Intervention Research)

First multicenter study of the incidence of solid cancers after hematopoietic cell transplantation. This report confirmed the need for life-long surveillance of transplant recipients. (Mary M. Horowitz, MD, MS, Robert A. Uihlein, Jr. Professor in Hematologic Research, Medicine – Hematology/Oncology)

First to demonstrate that inhaled anesthetics can protect the heart against ischemic injury when administered as a “preconditioning” stimulus. (David Warltier, MD, PhD, John P. Kampine Professor in Anesthesiology, Judy Kersten, MD, and Paul Pagel, MD, PhD, Anesthesiology)

1998
Developed the Hexaplex-a multiplex for common viral respiratory infections allowing for the early detection of many viruses from a single sample. (Kelly Henrickson, MD, Pediatrics)

Identified brain regions via an fMRI study that suggests nicotine also participates in the reinforcing, mood-elevating, and cognitive properties which had previously been identified as effects from other abused drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, and opiates, suggesting that nicotine acts similarly in the human brain to produce its reinforcing and dependence properties. (John Pankiewicz, MD, Harold H. Harsch, MD, J.K. Cho MD, Steven A. Fuller, PhD, Raymond G. Hoffmann, PhD, M Hawkins MD, Stephen A. Rao, PhD, Peter A. Bandettini, PhD, and S.A. Bloom PhD, Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Biophysics)

Identified novel endothelial lipoxygenase metabolites that dilate arteries and regulate blood pressure. (Sandra Pfister, PhD and William B. Campbell, PhD, Pharmacology and Toxicology)

1999
Discovered new chemical inhibitors of nitric oxide, which has led to the development of new, small molecule drugs to treat disorders such as sepsis, arthritis and inflammation, diabetes, and sickle cell anemia. (Ching-San Lai, PhD, Biochemistry)

Discovered the use of TGF-B antagonists to treat or prevent the loss of renal function. (Richard Roman, PhD, Physiology)

Developed an MRI method for diagnosing Alzheimer's Disease. (Shi-Jiang Li, PhD, James Hyde, PhD, James S. Hyde Professor in Biophysics, Biophysics; John Ulmer, MD, Radiology; Piero Antuono, MD, Neurology)

Discovered that cigarette smoking on the morning of surgery creates increased risk for myocardial ischemia. (Harvey Woehlck, MD, Anesthesiology)

2000-2004

2000
Together with colleagues at Hôpital St. Louis in Paris, performed first comparative study demonstrating of reduced risk of graft-versus-host disease after transplantation of umbilical cord blood versus bone marrow from HLA-matched siblings. (Mary M. Horowitz, MD, MS, Robert A. Uihlein, Jr. Professor in Hematologic Research, Medicine – Hematology/Oncology).

Invented methods for detection of the Von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease. (Robert Montgomery, MD, Pediatrics-Hematology/Oncology)

Discovered the use of new enzyme inhibitors as therapy for cerebral vascular disease. (Richard Roman, PhD and David Harder, PhD, Kohler Co. Professor in Cardiovascular Research, Physiology)

Developed a method for evaluating tumor growth using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. (Kathleen Schmainda, PhD, Radiology)

Identified the role of high blood sugar to block endogenous cardioprotective mechanisms in diabetes. (Judy Kersten, MD, Anesthesiology)

Identified loss of calcium currents in sensory neurons after peripheral nerve injury. (Quinn H. Hogan, MD, J. Bruce McCallum, PhD, Constantine Sarantopoulos, MD, PhD, Mark Aason, MD, Michelle Mynlieff, PhD, Wai-Meng Kwok, PhD, and Zeljko J. Bosnjak, PhD, Anesthesiology)

2001
Narrowed the search of the human genome for a gene linked to the development of heart attacks and coronary artery disease. Specific gene markers for these disorders were found on Chromosome 14. (Howard Jacob, PhD, Warren P. Knowles Professor in Human and Molecular Genetics, Physiology – Human and Molecular Genetics)

Discovered significant differences exist between the brains of men and women as they respond to signals from the gut. (Reza Shaker, MD, Joseph E. Geenen Professor in Gastroenterology, Medicine – Gastroenterology/Hepatology)

Discovered PcrV gene of Pseudomonas, which provides a candidate for a vaccine against Pseudomonas pneumonia. (Dara Frank, PhD, Microbiology and Molecular Genetics)

Completed the world’s first global assessment of cardiac function on the rat genome. (Howard Jacob, PhD, Warren P. Knowles Professor in Human and Molecular Genetics, Physiology – Human and Molecular Genetics)

Discovered that female athletes experiencing amenorrhea are at high risk for both cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. (Anne Hoch, DO, Orthopaedic Surgery)

Generated rat model of diabetic nephropathy. (Howard Jacob, PhD, Warren P. Knowles Professor in Human and Molecular Genetics, Marcelo Nobrega, Richard Roman, PhD, Physiology)

2002
Developed a new, rapid approach for producing designer rats that express specific disease traits for genetic research. (Allen W. Cowley, Jr. PhD, James J. Smith & Catherine Welsch Smith Professor in Physiology; Harry & Gertrude Hack Term Professorship in Physiology, Physiology)

With collaborators at the University of Massachusetts and Yale University, identified a gene in mice linked to the development of photoreceptor cells in the eye, a significant finding on the genetics of degenerative vision disorders like retinosis pigmentosa. (Joseph Besharse, PhD, Marvin Wagner Professor in Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy)

Identification of genetic causes and markers of hypertension; identification of hypertension-related QTLs in African American sibling pairs. (Allen Cowley, PhD, James J. Smith & Catherine Welsch Smith Professor in Physiology; Harry & Gertrude Hack Term Professorship in Physiology, Physiology)

Developed a new anti-reflux stent employing a valve that improves the quality of life for patients with terminal esophageal cancer. The stent was cleared for use in the U. S. by the Food and Drug Administration and approved for use in several European countries. (Kulwinder Dua, MD, Medicine – Gastroenterology)

Found that cigarette smoking weakens the pharynx reflex mechanisms that protect vocal cords from damage caused by acid reflux. (Reza Shaker, MD, Joseph E. Geenen Professor in Gastroenterology and Kulwinder Dua, MD, Medicine – Gastroenterology/Hepatology)

Discovered that infants activate the same proteins as adults to protect their hearts during open-heart surgery when blood supply is interrupted. (John Baker, PhD, Surgery – Cardiothoracic)

In collaboration with investigators at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Washington, discovered a gene that triggers Type 1 diabetes in rats. It is believed that this discovery will aid researchers in understanding one of the causes of human Type 1 diabetes. (Howard Jacob, PhD, Warren P. Knowles Professor in Human and Molecular Genetics, Physiology – Human and Molecular Genetics, and Anne Kwitek, PhD, Physiology)

Demonstrated that the co-registration of PET-CT images was successfully applied to clinical radiotherapy of head and neck cancer. (Dian Wang, MD, PhD, and Christopher Schultz, MD, Radiation Oncology)

Discovery of specific epoxyeicosatrienoic acid agonists and antagonists. (Kathryn Gauthier, PhD, John R. Falck, PhD and William B. Campbell, PhD, Pharmacology and Toxicology)

Invented a device for locating nerves during administration of peripheral anesthesia. (Quinn Hogan, MD, Anesthesiology)

With collaborators at the University of Massachusetts and Yale University, identified a ciliogenesis pathway required for development of photoreceptors, a finding that links retinal degeneration to other disorders associated with cilia now called ciliopathies. (Joseph C. Besharse, PhD, Marvin Wagner Professor in Cell Biology, Neurobiology, and Anatomy; Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy)

2003
Isolated a region of the brain responsible for perceptions of speech syllables. (Jeffrey Binder, MD, Neurology)

Determined that the use of automated external defibrillators, used in conjunction with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, doubles the chances of survival for cardiac arrest victims. (Thomas Aufderheide, MD, Emergency Medicine)

Discovered that stomach acid activates different genes in the esophageal lining of normal persons and patients with esophageal problems, revealing why some patients with reflux disease develop esophageal cancer. (Reza Shaker, MD, Joseph E. Geenen Professor in Gastroenterology, Medicine – Gastroenterology/Hepatology)

Discovered that a type of regulatory T-lymphocyte has the ability to turn off the body’s immune responses. (Robert Truitt, PhD, Pediatrics)

Discovered chemical reactions during sevoflurane anesthesia using desiccated CO2 absorbents can produce dangerous quantities of carbon monoxide. (Harvey Woehlck, MD, Anesthesiology)

Discovered that infra-red light from Light Emitting Diodes can reverse retinal damage caused by the ingestion of methanol. (Janis Eells, PhD, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Harry Whelan, MD, Neurology and Margaret Wong-Riley, PhD, Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy)

Developed efficient proteomics workstations for identification of peptides, modified peptides and proteins. (Brian Halligan, PhD, Human & Molecular Genetics Research Center and Edward Dratz, PhD, Biotechnology & Bioengineering Center)

Discovered the anti-angiogenic and cell proliferative effects of 20-HETE antagonists and synthesis inhibitors and their use in treating cancer. (Richard Roman, PhD, Physiology, Andrew Greene, PhD, Dr. Robert D. and Dr. Patricia E. Kern Professor in Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Physiology, Sandra Amaral, PhD, Stephen Brown, Ping Chen, Meng Guo, Alfonso Scicli)

Devised a method for measuring neurovascular uncoupling in FMRI. (John Ulmer, MD, Edgar DeYoe, PhD, Radiology)

First clinical report of response to Monkeypox outbreak in North America. (Charles E. Edmiston, Jr., PhD, P.J. Wilson, B. Grahn, Surgery, and Mary Beth Graham, MD, Medicine)

2004
Federal vehicle side impact protection standards were revised in 2004 based on research that found high mortality rates resulting from serious head injuries in side crashes. Car manufacturers have been advised to install head-protecting airbags as a standard feature in all cars. (Thomas Gennarelli, MD, Neurosurgery)

Discovered that children who live or have lived on a farm have lower rates of asthma than rural children who have not lived on a farm. (Alan Adler, MD, Pediatrics)

Discovered that the use of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging can help physicians predict which patients undergoing brain surgery will develop problems with language functioning. (Jeffrey Binder, MD, Neurology)

Developed a strategy to use distance communication technologies to rapidly disseminate evidence-based HIV prevention advances to AIDS service providers worldwide. (Jeffrey A. Kelly, PhD, Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine/Center for AIDS Intervention Research)

Identification of 2-arachidonylglycerol as an endogenous inhibitor of prostate cancer cell invasion. (Kasem Nithipatikom, PhD, Pharmacology and Toxicology)

Cardiac cytochrome P450 omega-hydroxylase, a naturally occurring molecule, contributes to heart injury following ischemia heart disease and omega hydroxylase inhibitors, which can be produced and administered, are protective of heart muscle. (Garrett Gross, PhD and Kasem Nitipatikom, PhD, Pharmacology and Toxicology)

Discovered that endocannabinoid pathways in the brain reduce stress and drugs that increase endocannabinoids represent new treatments for depression and post-traumatic stress disorders. (Cecilia Hillard, PhD, Pharmacology and Toxicology and Neuroscience Research Center)

Co-developed a new technique to study the number of motor units in muscle, now being adapted for research studies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease. (Sanjeev D. Nandedkar, PhD and Paul E. Barkhaus, MD, Neurology)

Demonstrated similar survival after transplantation using unrelated umbilical cord blood and unrelated adult bone marrow in adults with leukemia. (Mary Eapen, MBBS, MS and Mary M. Horowitz, MD, MS, Robert A. Uihlein, Jr. Professor in Hematologic Research, Medicine – Hematology/Oncology)

First demonstration of higher risks of mortality after transplantation of peripheral blood progenitor cells (stem cells found in peripheral blood rather than bone marrow) compared to bone marrow in children with leukemia. (Mary Eapen MBBS, MS, Medicine – Hematology/Oncology)

Discovered the cardioprotective benefits of thrombopoietin. (John Baker, PhD, Yang Shi, PhD, Surgery)

First laboratory documentation that broad-spectrum quinolone, Moxifloxacin was effective against surgical microbial pathogens. (Charles E. Edmiston, Jr., PhD, C.J. Krepel, Gary R. Seabrook, MD, Lewis R. Somberg, MD, A. Nakeeb, MD, R.A. Cambria, MD, Jonathan B. Towne, MD, Surgery)

First documentation that traditional antimicrobial dosing for patients undergoing bariatric surgery was sub-therapeutic leading to increasing antimicrobial dosing for surgical prophylaxis. (Charles E. Edmiston, Jr., PhD, C. Krepel; H. Kelly, J. Larson, MD, D. Andris; A. Nakeeb, MD, James R. Wallace, MD, PhD, C. Hennen, Surgery)

2005-2009

2005
Discovered that stem cells from umbilical cords are an effective transplant source for leukemia patients. (Mary Horowitz, MD, Robert A. Uihlein, Jr. Professor in Hematologic Research, Medicine – Hematology/Oncology, CIBMTR)

Discovered 46 chromosomal areas associated with hypertension. (Allen Cowley, PhD, James J. Smith & Catherine Welsch Smith Professor in Physiology; Harry & Gertrude Hack Term Professorship in Physiology, Physiology; Theodore Kotchen, MD, Medicine – Endocrinology)

First rabies patient to be successfully treated in the world; Milwaukee Protocol developed. (Rodney Willoughby, MD, Pediatrics – Infectious Disease)

Invented a molecular diagnostic test to identify donors for organ and bone-marrow transplantation. (David Bick, MD and Eduardo Lau, PhD, Pediatrics)

Devised a system and method for direct digitization of NMR. (nuclear magnetic resonance) signals. (Andrzej Jesmanowicz, PhD, Biophysics)

Developed 20-HETE analogs for treating polycystic kidney and liver diseases. (Ellis Avner, MD, William Sweeney, Jr., MD, Pediatrics; Richard Roman, PhD, Physiology)

Developed a tracking system for MR (magnetic resonance) imaging and spectroscopy. (Thomas Prieto, PhD, Neurology, Thomas Ernst, PhD, University of Hawaii, Brian Armstrong, PhD, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee)

First characterization of the molecular epidemiology of microbial contamination within the operating room environment. (Charles E. Edmiston, Jr., PhD; Gary R. Seabrook, MD; R.A. Cambria, MD, K.R. Brown, MD, B.D. Lewis, MD, C.J. Krepel, P.J. Wilson, S. Sinski, Jonathan B. Towne, MD, Surgery)

2006
Discovered dramatic differences in way adults, infants, and children process drugs. (Ronald Hines, PhD, Pharmacology and Toxicology)

Discovered biofilms in middle ear infection; first evidence to definitively make statement against using antibiotics to treat children with chronic otitis media. (Joseph Kerschner, MD, Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences)

First evidence that circulating endothelial microparticles lead to heart disease. (Tara Sander, MD, Pathology)

U.S. patent awarded on method for detecting brain disease using spontaneous low-frequency physiological fluctuations in high activity. (Piero Antuono, MD, Neurology)

U.S. patent awarded on an fMRI method using a high spatial and temporal resolution and computer software to quantify synchronization and rhythmic processes in the human brain, with whole brain coverage. (Piero Antuono, MD, Neurology)

Discovered that cardiac cytochrome P450 epoxygenase protects the heart from ischemic injury through synthesis of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. (Garrett Gross, PhD and Kasem Nithipatikom, PhD, Pharmacology and Toxicology)

Invented a method to prevent myopia (near-sightedness). (Jay Neitz, PhD, R.D. & Linda Peters Professor in Ophthalmology, and Maureen Neitz, PhD, Richard O. Schultz/Ruth Works Professor in Ophthalmology Research, Ophthalmology)

Developed modified morphine compounds for treating opiate and tobacco dependence. (Leon Tseng, MD, Anesthesiology)

Discovered that there is a critical period of respiratory development postnatally, when the nervous system undergoes sudden neurochemical, metabolic and physiological changes that significantly weakens the response to hypoxia. This has special implication for susceptibility to SIDS. (Margaret Wong-Riley, PhD, Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy)

First characterization of the impact of an antimicrobial-coated suture technology to prevent bacterial contamination by intraoperative surgical pathogens. (Charles E. Edmiston, Jr., PhD, M.P. Goheen, C. Krepel, Gary R. Seabrook, MD, Christopher P. Johnson, MD, B.D. Lewis, MD, K.R. Brown, MD, Jonathan B. Towne, MD, Surgery)

2007
Discovered a common drug, captopril, may limit radiation kidney damage in bone marrow transplant patients. (Eric Cohen, MD, Medicine – Nephrology)

Discovered “good cholesterol” gene that plays role in determining levels of HDL cholesterol. (Ahmed Kissebah, MD, PhD, Medicine – Endocrinology)

First NCI-sponsored protocol on image-guided radiation treatment of primary extremity soft tissue sarcoma was opened nationwide through Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. (Dian Wang, MD, PhD, Radiation Oncology was protocol investigator)

Discovered hydrogen gas produced during chemical reactions of sevoflurane and desiccated CO2 absorbents can reach flammable limits and explode spontaneously. (Harvey Woehlck, MD, Anesthesiology)

First conclusive demonstration of the importance of HLA-matching unrelated hematopoietic stem cell donors to recipients at allele-level HLA typing and incorporating HLA-C into the selection algorithm for donors. (Mary Eapen, MBBS, MS and Mary M. Horowitz, MD, MS, Robert A. Uihlein, Jr. Professor in Hematologic Research, Medicine – Hematology/Oncology)

First demonstration of the comparability between mismatched unrelated umbilical cord blood and allele-level HLA-matched unrelated bone marrow transplants in children with acute leukemia. (Mary Eapen MBBS, MS, Medicine – Hematology/Oncology)

Developed an improved method for measuring Von Willebrand Factor (a blood disorder). (Robert Montgomery, MD, Pediatrics – Hematology/Oncology)

Developed synthetic versions of chemokines for treating cancer. (Brian Volkman, PhD, Biochemistry and Michael Dwinell, PhD, Microbiology, and Reza Shaker, MD, Joseph E. Geenen Professor in Gastroenterology, Medicine – Gastroenterology and Hepatology)

Invented a method for diagnosing fatty liver disease. (Samer Gawrieh, Medicine – Gastroenterology and Hepatology)

Developed monoclonal antibodies against interferon for use in research. (Sidney Grossberg, MD, PhD, Walter Schroeder Professor Emeritus in Microbiology, Microbiology & Molecular Genetics and Philip Redlich, MD, Gerald L. Schmitz, MD Professor in the Department of Surgery, Surgery)

Invented a 99mTechnetium-labeled peptide (a type of medical radioisotope used in medical diagnostic procedures) as a molecular probe for detecting disease-associated cell death in living organisms. (Ming Zhao, PhD, Biophysics)

Nerve receptor identified that allows the body to sense cold. (Cheryl Stucky, PhD, Cell Biology, Neurobiology & Anatomy)

2008
Discovered shape-shifting attributes of protein (lymphotactin) that alters longstanding concept of fixed protein structure. (Brian Volkman, PhD, Biochemistry)

Low birth weight identified as key factor in development of infant hemangiomas. (Beth Drolet, MD, Dermatology)

Height of pitcher’s mound identified as key factor in injuries of shoulder and elbow in professional baseball pitchers. (William Raasch, MD, Orthopaedic Surgery)

Demonstration that ACE inhibitors could be used to decrease the incidence of radiation injuries in bone marrow transplant patients. (Eric P Cohen, MD, Medicine; John E. Moulder, PhD, Radiation Oncology; William R Drobyski, MD, Medicine)

Discovered that low-fat diets are more effective in preserving and promoting a healthy cardiovascular system than low-carbohydrate diets. Although similarly effective in reducing weight and blood pressure, and preserving cholesterol levels, a low-carbohydrate diet damaged vessel function while a low-fat diet improved vascular function. The abnormal vascular function in the low carbohydrate diet predisposes to the development of heart disease and stroke. (David Gutterman, MD, Northwestern Mutual Professor in Cardiology, Shane Phillips, PhD, Medicine – Cardiology)

Provided evidence that severe sleep restriction induces cell stress and systemic inflammation that would be expected to pose disease risks. (Carol Everson, PhD, Neurology, and Neil Hogg, Biophysics)

Determined that SmgGDS is a protein that increases the growth of lung, prostate and breast tumors and reducing SmgGDS slows the growth of cancer cells and diminishes tumor formation. (Carol L. Williams, PhD, Pharmacology and Toxicology)

Invented mitochondrial-targeting antioxidant compounds for prevention and/or treatment of hyper-proliferative diseases, neoplasias and cancers. (Balaraman Kalyanaraman, PhD, Harry R. & Angeline E. Quadracci Professor in Parkinson’s Research, Joy Joseph, PhD, Biophysics)

Invented mitochondrial targeting antioxidant compounds with neuroprotective and cardioprotective properties. (Balaraman Kalyanaraman, PhD, Harry R. & Angeline E. Quadracci Professor in Parkinson’s Research, Joy Joseph, PhD, Biophysics; Anumantha Kanthasamy, PhD, Iowa State University)

Designed novel multi-functional anti-inflammatory peptides. (Kirkwood Pritchard, PhD, Yang Shi, PhD, Hao Xu, PhD, Hao Zhang, PhD, Surgery)

Engineered a new form of botulinum toxin that could be used to treat inflammatory diseases. (Joseph Barbieri, PhD, Microbiology & Molecular Genetics)

First study to document the impact of a standardized protocol for achieving high skin surface concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate for patients undergoing elective surgical procedures. (Charles E. Edmiston, Jr., PhD, C.J., Krepel, Gary R. Seabrook, MD; B.D. Lewis, MD; K.R., Brown, MD; Jonathan B. Towne, MD, Surgery)

2009
Discovered that combination of air bags and seat belts provides best protection against spine fractures in motor vehicle crashes. (Marjorie Wang, MD, MPH; Frank Pintar, PhD, Narayan Yoganandan, PhD, Dennis Maiman, MD, PhD, Sanford J. Larson, MD, PhD Professor in Neurosurgery, Neurosurgery)

Discovery of mutations in two genes to be associated with vascular anomalies. (Ramani Ramchandran, PhD, Pediatrics – Developmental Biology)

Developed first knockout rats in the world using zinc finger nuclease technology. (Howard J. Jacob, PhD, Warren P. Knowles Professor in Human and Molecular Genetics, Physiology)

Discovered ballerinas and female athletes share quadruple health threat that includes osteoporosis and heart disease. (Anne Zeni Hoch, DO, Orthopaedic Surgery)

Discovered stress-related gene that modulates high blood pressure in humans. (Ulrich Broeckel, MD, Pediatrics, Medicine, Physiology)

For the first time, created human liver cells from induced pluripotent stem cells that originated as human skin cells. (Stephen Duncan, PhD, Marcus Professor in Human and Molecular Genetics, Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy)

Determined that inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase lowers blood pressure and protects the kidney from damage in hypertension. (John D. Imig, PhD, Pharmacology and Toxicology)

Developed a method for detection and prediction of Alzheimer's disease based on the fingerprints of neural network interaction. (Shi-Jiang Li, PhD, Gang Chen, PhD, Douglas Ward, Biophysics; Piero Antuono, MD, Neurology)

Discovered Protease-Activated Receptor 1 putative signal peptide which protects against ischemia reperfusion injury. (Jennifer Strande, MD, PhD, Medicine)

One of the first births in the United States of a child free of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease following pre-implantation genetic diagnosis with molecular testing based on whole genome amplification. (Estil Strawn, MD, Obstetrics and Gynecology; Ellis Avner, MD, Pediatric Nephrology; David Bick, MD; Eduardo Lau, PhD; Pediatric Genetics)

Identified a transcription factor that helps to explain why defective energy metabolism underlies many neurodegenerative diseases. (Margaret Wong-Riley, PhD, Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy)

Discovered the ability of thrombopoietin to protect the adult heart from damage during a heart attack. (John Baker, PhD, Surgery)

Developed a gene therapy that cured color blindness in monkey models; named by Time Magazine as among the “Top Ten Everything of 2009”. (Jay Neitz, PhD, R.D. & Linda Peters Professor in Ophthalmology, Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy; Maureen Neitz, PhD, Richard O. Schultz/Ruth Works Professor in Ophthalmology Research; Thomas Connor, MD; Ophthalmology)

2009 and 2010
Discovered ion channel that mediates touch responses in skin sensory neurons and mediates tingling paresthesia. (Cheryl Stucky, PhD, Cell Biology, Neurobiology & Anatomy)

2010-2014

2010
For the first time, used genetic sequencing (whole exome) to diagnose and successfully treat an unknown disease. (Elizabeth Worthey, PhD, Institute for Health and Society – Bioinformatics; Alan Mayer, MD, PhD, Pediatrics – Gastroenterology and Hepatology; Howard Jacob, PhD, Warren P. Knowles Professor in Human and Molecular Genetics, Physiology, David Dimmock, MD, Pediatrics)

Invented a device to treat acid reflux disease. (Reza Shaker, MD, Joseph E. Geenen Professor in Gastroenterology, Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology)

Discovered that changes in concentration of cell free donor specific DNA in recipient plasma can be a used as a marker of cell injury following organ transplantation. (Aoy Tomita Mitchell, PhD, Michael E. Mitchell, MD, Surgery)

Collaborating investigators from MCW, Johns Hopkins University and the University of Patras in Greece discovered a novel peptide “Parstatin” and its derivatives are efficacious in treating ischemic-related damage to the retina and heart. (Jennifer Strande, MD, PhD, Medicine – Cardiovascular Medicine)

Invented novel epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) analogs and soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (SEHI) with therapeutic value for the treatment of inflammation and of cardiovascular, renal and other diseases. (John Imig, PhD, and William Campbell, PhD, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Camille Falck, PhD, UT Southwestern)

Developed and validated a clinically relevant model of cardiac protection using human cardiomyocytes derived from embryonic stem cells and patient-derived induced pluripotent cells. (Zeljko J Bosnjak PhD and Ana Sepac MD, Anesthesiology)

2011
Researchers identify gene responsible for “elephant man disease.” (David Bick, MD, Pediatrics)

Alternative method of CPR proven to increase long-term survival of patients. (Tom Aufderheide, MD, Emergency Medicine)

U.S. patent awarded on systems and methods for detection and prediction of brain disorders based on neural networks interaction. (Piero Antuono, MD, Neurology)

Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) sarcoma radiation oncologists reached consensus on gross tumor volume and clinical target volume on computed tomographic images for preoperative radiotherapy of primary soft tissue sarcoma of extremity in RTOG studies. (Dian Wang, MD, PhD, Radiation Oncology, was the first and correspondence author)

Provided the first evidence that chronic lack of sleep results in long-lasting and, potentially, a lifetime burden of physiological abnormalities in the animal model. (Carol Everson, PhD, Neurology, and Aniko Szabo, PhD, Institute for Health and Society)

First demonstration of the importance of HLA-matching unrelated umbilical cord blood to recipients at the HLA-C locus, a specific receptor on chromosome 6. (Mary Eapen MBBS, MS, Medicine – Hematology/Oncology)

Identified novel small molecule candidates as potential therapeutics for vascular anomalies. (Ramani Ramchandran, PhD and Indranil Sinha, PhD, Pediatrics, Daniel Sem, PhD, Andrew Olson and Terrence Newmann, Marquette University)

Identified mechanism leading to pain in sickle cell disease; identified the role of hot chili pepper receptor. (Cheryl Stucky, PhD, Cell Biology, Neurobiology & Anatomy)

First study to document the potential benefits of an innovative antimicrobial glove technology to prevent bacterial contamination of the surgical wound. (Gary R. Seabrook, MD, Charles E. Edmiston, Jr., PhD, Surgery)

First documentation that patients with a body mass index over 30 undergoing C-section were sub-optimally dosed prior to surgery. (C. Krepel, Charles E. Edmiston, Jr., PhD)

2012
Discovered that chronic lack of sleep results in abnormal bone remodeling and abnormal marrow cellularity in the animal model. (Carol Everson, PhD, Neurology and Jeffrey Toth, PhD, Orthopaedic Surgery)

Collaborating researchers at 12 institutions definitively prove colonoscopy and polyp removal prevents colorectal cancer and decreases deaths from the disease. (Walter Hogan, MD, Medicine – Gastroenterology and Hepatology)

Discovered bacteria in the gut that could predict the likelihood of having a heart attack. (John Baker, PhD, Surgery – Cardiothoracic)

Based on research by the Department of Neurosurgery, the Federal Aviation Administration instituted a direct safety rule change for occupant neck-injury protection in side-facing aircraft seats. (Frank Pintar, PhD, Neurosurgery)

Based on research conducted at 麻豆学生精品版and funded through the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety designed new consumer information on vehicle crash tests addressing head, neck and lower-extremity injuries in small-overlap crashes. (Frank Pintar, PhD, Neurosurgery)

Identified a novel form of gastrointestinal malignant neoplasm (Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor) by combined used of immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and molecular genetic techniques. (Eduardo Zambrano, MD, Pathology)

Co-developed and obtained FDA clearance of the Verigene Blood Culture-Gram Positive Assay. This assay is the first comprehensive molecular method for detecting Gram positive bacteria and important resistance factors directly from a blood culture bottle. (Nathan Ledeboer, PhD, and Blake Buchan, PhD, Pathology)

Comparing whole genome sequences for non-small cell lung tumors and adjacent normal tissue, alterations in five novel genes were discovered and may lead to new treatments for lung cancer. (Ming You, MD, PhD, Joseph F. Heil, Jr. Professor in Molecular Oncogenesis, Pharmacology and Toxicology and Cancer Center)

Determined that a novel gene called CSMD3 is the most frequently mutated gene in lung cancer. (Ming You, MD, PhD, Joseph F. Heil, Jr. Professor in Molecular Oncogenesis, Pharmacology and Toxicology and Cancer Center)

Discovered that low blood pressure and inability of blood to clot during liver transplantation is an anaphylactic, or allergic, reaction. (Harvey Woehlck, MD, Anesthesiology)

Helped to create national guidelines for vasectomy. (Jay Sandlow, MD, Urology)

Light touch tactile transducer identified in sensory neurons. (Cheryl Stucky, PhD, Cell Biology, Neurobiology & Anatomy)

Discovered how low blood sugar damages human arteries. (Michael E. Widlansky, MD, MPH, Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine, Pharmacology)

Discovered that vasoplegia and coagulopathy of reperfusion syndrome during liver transplantation is an anaphylactic reaction. (Harvey Woehlck, MD, Anesthesiology)

2013
Discovered promising treatment for x-linked myotubular myopathy. (Michael Lawlor, MD, PhD, Surgery – Cardiothoracic)

Found placebo just as good as medication for adolescent migraine. (Jeffrey Jackson, MD, Medicine – General Internal)

First demonstration that an innovative antimicrobial surgical glove was effective at neutralization HIV virus following percutaneous injury. (Charles E. Edmiston, Jr., PhD, C. Krepel, B. Lewis, MD, K. Brown, MD, P. Rossi, MD, Gary R. Seabrook, MD, Surgery, and Mary Beth Graham, MD, Medicine)

First clinical mechanistic studies of the epidemiology of bacterial contamination to surgical sutures in infected and non-infected patients. (Charles E. Edmiston, PhD; C.J. Krepel, P.J. Rossi, MD; J. Sanger, MD; Matthew Goldblatt, MD; Gary R. Seabrook, MD, Surgery, and Richard M. Marks, MD, Orthopaedic Surgery, and Mary Beth Graham, MD, Medicine)

Discovered that type 2 diabetic patient-derived cells recapitulate the patient’s sensitivity to cardiac stress. (Zeljko J. Bosnjak, PhD, Xiaowen Bai, MD, PhD, and Scott Canfield, Anesthesiology)

First to show anesthetic neurotoxicity in human stem cell-derived neurons. (Zeljko J. Bosnjak, PhD, Xiaowen Bai, MD, PhD, and Scott Canfield, Anesthesiology)

Developed a new bioinformatics software tool designed to more easily identify genetic mutations responsible for cancers. (Yan Lu, PhD, and Pengyuan Liu, PhD, both Physiology, and Xing Hua, PhD, National Cancer Institute)

First to document irregular brain activity within the first 24 hours of a concussive injury, as well as an increased level of brain activity weeks later—suggesting that the brain may compensate for the injury during the recovery time. (Thomas Hammeke, PhD, Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine)

Discovered a way to block adenosine, produced by tumor cells, which may be responsible for signaling lung, breast, and pancreatic cancer metastasis. (Carol L. Williams, PhD, Pharmacology and Toxicology)

Discovered that Diapocynin, a synthetic molecule derived from a naturally occurring compound (apocynin), has been found to protect neurobehavioral function in mice with Parkinson’s disease symptoms by preventing deficits in motor coordination. (Balaraman Kalyanaraman, PhD, Biophysics)

First in the nation to launch a genomic medicine clinic, in conjunction with Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin and Froedtert Hospital. The clinic is the first to offer whole genome sequencing clinically to patients on “diagnostic odysseys.” (David Bick, MD, Pediatrics – Genetics Howard Jacob, PhD, Physiology, and the Human and Molecular Genetics Center)

First in the world to successfully treat hemophilia in dogs through gene therapy. (David Wilcox, PhD, Pediatrics – Hematology/Oncology)

With colleagues at the University of Edinburgh, discovered the gene responsible for Warburg Micro syndrome, a rare genetic disease characterized by eye, brain, and endocrine abnormalities. (Ryan Liegel, PhD, and Duska J. Sidnanin, PhD, both Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy)

Discovered that a molecular test that detects pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was a more sensitive biomarker of aspiration-associated reflux disease in children with chronic pulmonary disease than the most widely used test. (Joseph E. Kerschner, MD, and Elizabeth Kelly, MD, both Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences)

Found that liver transplant outcomes in children are similar whether organ donation follows circulatory or brain death. (Johnny Hong, MD, Surgery – Transplant)

Identified genes responsible for childhood apraxia, a rare complex speech disorder affecting children. (Elizabeth Worthey, PhD, Pediatrics – Genomic)

First successful treatment of hemophilia in dogs using gene therapy. (David Wilcox, PhD, Pediatrics – Hematology/Oncology)

Discovered that treatments of supplemental iron effectively resolved restless leg syndrome in children. (Louella Amos, MD, Pediatrics – Pulmonary)

2014
Found that a surgically-implanted upper airway stimulation device reduced obstructive sleep apnea episodes by 70 percent. (B. Tucker Woodson, MD, Otolaryngology & Communication Sciences)

Found that the incidence of severe sepsis was nearly five times lower and the risk of death from severe sepsis was 43% lower during pregnancy, compared with nonpregnant women. (Gagan Kumar, MD, Medicine – Pulmonary and Critical Care)

Found that patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention after cardiac arrest are more likely to have more complex lesions, cardiogenic shock, and higher mortality. (Navdeep Gupta, MD, Medicine – General Internal)

First to discover leptin in birds, previously considered to be a missing hormone in birds. (Jeremy Prokop, PhD, Institute for Health and Society – Bioinformatics)

With collaborators at the Scripps Research Institute, identified a dual-sensor system involving the Merkel cell and an associated nerve end that contribute to the touch sensation. (Cheryl Stucky, PhD, Cell Biology, Neurobiology, and Anatomy)

Discovered that girls who suffer a concussion may have more severe symptoms that last longer compared to boys. (Shayne Fehr, MD, Orthopaedic Surgery – Pediatrics)

With collaborators at the University of Wisconsin, the AIDS Resource Center of Wisconsin, and the Veterans Administration, found that intravenous drug users in rural areas are often not screened for hepatitis C. IV drug users have increased risks of contracting hepatitis C. (John Fangman, MD, Medicine – Infectious Disease)

Discovered that statins don't improve outcomes for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome from sepsis. (Jonathon Truwit, MD, Medicine – Pulmonary)

Found that patients who took opioids before elective spine surgery for degenerative changes were more likely to be using the pain medications postoperatively than those who did not take opioids before surgery. (Marjorie Wang, MD, Neurosurgery)

Linked insufficient sleep to the onset of osteoporosis and a lessened ability to repair slight bone damage caused by normal everyday activity. (Carol Everson, PhD, Neurology)

Discovered that sleep deprivation causes damage to cells, especially in the liver, lung, and small intestine. Recovery sleep following deprivation heals the damage. (Carol Everson, PhD, Neurology)

With University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, found that long periods of low activity may not only lower cardiorespiratory fitness, but even negate the benefits of a brief period of exercise. (Jacquelyn Kulinski, MD, Medicine – Cardiology)

Discovered that individuals with sickle cell disease have increased sensitivity to cold and heat. (Amanda Brandow, MD, Pediatrics – Hematology/Oncology)

2015-2019

2015
Found no benefit from longer, five-day rests for pediatric concussion patients. (Danny Thomas, MD, Pediatrics 鈥 Emergency Medicine)

Determined that breast cancer patients who receive care at hospitals with high-volumes of breast cancer patients are more likely to receive care that reflects the current standards. (Liliana E. Pezzin, PhD, JD,, and Ann B. Nattinger, MD, MPH, both Medicine 鈥 General Internal)

Discovered that an individual鈥檚 distribution of fat and corresponding levels of adiponectin (ADPN), a protein hormone associated with regulating metabolic processes, are at greater risk for diabetes and metabolic syndrome. (Srividya Kidambi, MD, Medicine 鈥 Endocrinology, Metabolism & Clinical Nutrition)

Found that the gene PARK2 鈥 already associated with early-onset Parkinson鈥檚 disease, also is associated with lung cancer. (Donghai Xiong, PhD, Pharmacology and Toxicology)

Created bioengineered structures that are the same size, shape and stiffness as heart muscle cells, work that may one day help doctors repair heart tissue and prevent heart failure. (Paul Goldspink, PhD 鈥 Physiology)

Identified a protein that is linked to the development of post-viral infection asthma. The discovery is the first step in generating a novel type of asthma therapy designed to prevent development of post-viral asthma in young children. (Brian Volkman, PhD, Biochemistry; and Mitchell Grayson, MD, Pediatrics 鈥 Allergy, Asthma & Immunology)

Found that for every hour that adults spend sitting, the levels of artery deposits are increased by 14 percent. (Jacquelyn Kulkinski, MD, Medicine 鈥 Cardiology)

Found that patients who received stents for intracranial arterial stenosis were more than twice as likely to suffer a stroke or ministroke as patients treated with two blood thinners, Plavix and aspirin. (Osama Zaidat, MD, Neurology; Neurosurgery)

Found that patients with end-stage renal disease who initiate renal replacement therapy on peritoneal dialysis are at lower risk of dementia than those who start on hemodialysis. (Dawn Wolfgram, MD, Medicine 鈥 Nephrology)

Demonstrated that a chemokine protein (CXCL12), an important molecule of the body鈥檚 immune system, can suppress metastasis. (Michael B. Dwinell, PhD, Microbiology and Molecular Genetics; and Ishan Roy, PhD, MSTP student)

Reported that breast cancer patient adherence to aromatase inhibitor treatments improved after the drugs became generically available. (Joan Neuner, MD, Medicine 鈥 General Internal)

Engineered a strain of E. faecalis bacterium to produce an antimicrobial that could eliminate multi-drug resistant enterococci from increasing in the gut. E. faecalis is a gastrointestinal bacterium associated with hospital acquired infections. (Nita Salzman, MD, PhD, Pediatrics; and Microbiology & Molecular Genetics; and Christopher J. Kristich, PhD, Microbiology & Molecular Genetics)

Determined that omega-3 fatty acids from marine animals may help sickle cell disease patients. (Nancy Wandersee, PhD, Pediatrics 鈥 Hematology/Oncology)

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, showed that parts of the 鈥減ain network鈥 in rat鈥檚 brains are less activated when rats receive pain-relieving stimulation of the dorsal root ganglion, a structure on the edge of the spine. (Quinn Hogan, MD, Anesthesiology)

Found that high school and college athletes with a history of developmental disorders such as attention deficit -hyperactivity disorder and learning disability are 2 to 3 times more likely to self-report having experienced multiple concussions than those without such history. (Lindsay Nelson, PhD, Neurosurgery)

Reported that physicians are unprepared to identify victims of sex trafficking. (Angela Rabbitt, DO, Pediatrics 鈥 Child Advocacy)

Found that some athletes who experience sports-related concussions have reduced blood flow in parts of their brains even after clinical recovery. (Yang Wang, MD, PhD, Radiology; and Michael McCrea, PhD, Neurosurgery)

Found that survival rates at 100 days and two years following hematopoietic cell transplants were the same for myelodysplastic syndrome patients age 65 and older as compared to patients aged 55 to 64. (Ehab Atallah, MD, Medicine 鈥 Hematology/Oncology)

Food and Drug Administration approval is granted for recombinant von Willebrand factor (Vonvendi, Baxalta) for use in adult patients who have von Willebrand disease. Approval was based on results of a clinical trial led by MCW. (Joan Gill, MD, Pediatrics 鈥 Hematology/Oncology)

Found that bariatric surgery patients who remained in the hospital for at least three days post-surgery were up to four times as likely to be readmitted compared to patients who were discharged within a day. (Alex Lois, MD, Surgery 鈥 General)

2016
Identified a new redox-sensitive, mitochondrial energy-sensor-mediated pathway of regression of pancreatic cancer cell growth. (Balaraman Kalyanaraman, PhD, Biophysics; and Michael B. Dwinell, PhD, Microbiology and Molecular Genetics)

Identified a new candidate gene associated with causing sensorineural hearing loss, the most common type of hearing loss. (Christina Runge, PhD, Otolaryngology & Communication Sciences)

Determined that the identification of frailty in an older patient improves chances of surviving surgery. (Angela Beckert, MD, Medicine 鈥 Geriatrics & Gerontology)

Engineered new vectors for gene therapy for eye diseases including macular degeneration caused by the abnormal growth of blood vessels (Daniel Lipinski, DPhil, Ophthalmology)

First to describe the neuroprotective role of a novel and a relatively non-toxic mitochondria-targeted compound (known as mito-apocynin or Mito-Apo) in cellular and animal models o Parkinson鈥檚 disease. (Balaraman Kalyanaraman, PhD, Biophysics; with Anumantha Kanthasamy, PhD, Iowa State University)

Determined that the evolution of an ancient cellular mutation 600 million years ago allowed single cells to evolve to multi-celled organisms. (Brian Volkman, PhD, and Dustin Whitney, PhD, both Biochemistry)

Determined that the maintenance of optimal memory health in women over the age of 80 is positively impacted by higher education, overall good health, positive emotional wellbeing, and higher physical functioning. (Joseph Goveas, MD, Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine)

Provided the first-of-its-kind validation of technologies used to measure tumor markets in cancer pathology. (Hallgeir Rui, MD, PhD, Pathology)

Identified a T cell population that has a unique cell surface and transcriptional phenotype that causes graft-versus-host disease with the GI tract. (William Drobyski, MD, Medicine 鈥 Hematology/Oncology)

First in the world to successfully regenerate a human esophagus. (Kulwinder, S. Dua, MD, Medicine 鈥 Gastroenterology & Hepatology)

First in the United States to successfully create a trachea for an infant born without a trachea. (John Densmore, MD, Surgery 鈥 Pediatric)

Found that a distinct mutation of the BRAG1 protein increased chances of developing a neurological disorder. (Nashaat Gerges, PhD, Cell Biology, Neurobiology, & Anatomy; with colleagues at the University of Connecticut)

Determined that psychosomatic injuries prior to a concussion can result in longer recovery times from the concussion. (Lindsay Nelson, PhD, Neurosurgery)

Found that older breast cancer patients were less likely to receive bone mineral density tests than younger patients. (Alan Charlson, MD, Medicine 鈥 Hematology/Oncology)

Found that a small molecule drug 鈥 EET-A 鈥 can significantly lessen the damage that occurs to the kidneys when cancer patients receive radiotherapy. (Abdul Hye Khan, PhD, Pharmacology and Toxicology)

Determined that Cushing syndrome may be the potential cause for weight gain and metabolic complications for patients who have undergone bariatric surgery for obesity. (Ty Carroll, MD, Medicine 鈥 Endocrinology)

2017
With colleagues in Canada, conducted the world鈥檚 first use of gene therapy to treat Fabry Disease. (Jeffrey A. Medin, PhD, Pediatrics-Hematology/Oncology)

Found that caffeine may protect the lungs from damage caused by prolonged oxygen therapy. (Ru-Jeng Teng, MD, Pediatrics 鈥 Neonatology)

Found that the symptoms of parent-reported penicillin allergy in the pediatric emergency department frequently do not reflect those that would be expected from a true penicillin allergy, (David Vyles, DO, Pediatrics-Emergency Medicine)

Determined that older blood used in transfusions may be harmful to sickle cell disease patients. (Matthew Karafin, MD, Pathology)

Discovered that monthly doses of vitamin D increased bone density in HIV-infected youth who were receiving Viread as part of their combination antiretroviral therapy. (Peter L. Havens, MD, Pediatrics 鈥 Infectious Diseases)

Determined that cranial nerve XII stimulation provides significant clinical improvement at one to five years for patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea. (B. Tucker Woodson, MD, Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences)

Determined that physiological stress in premature infant rats combined with separation from their mothers may have lasting effects into adulthood, including obesity and insulin resistance. (Hershel Raff, PhD, Medicine-Endocrinology, School of Pharmacy; with colleagues at Aurora St. Luke鈥檚 Medical Center)

Found that oral contraceptives may contribute to higher levels of depression in women compared to men. (Timothy Meier, MD, Neurosurgery)

Found that neurostimulation through percutaneous electrical nerve field stimulation effectively reduces pediatric abdominal pain related to functional gastrointestinal disorders. (Adrian Miranda, MD, Medicine 鈥 Gastroenterology & Hepatology)

Discovered that a form of the human chemokine CCL20, an immune system molecule involved in the genesis of psoriasis, could provide a potential new treatment for psoriasis and other inflammatory diseases. (Anthony Getschman, PhD, Biochemistry; with colleagues at the University of California 鈥 Davis)

Discovered a mechanism that regulates the sizes of mitochondria in cells. (Blake Hill, PhD, Biochemistry; with colleagues at the University of California 鈥 Los Angeles, and the University of Illinois 鈥 Urbana-Champaign)

Determined that patient mortality rates decline as hospitalists gain more experience. (Siddhartha Singh, MD, MS, and Ann Nattinger, MD, MPH, Medicine 鈥 General Internal; with colleagues at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston)

2018
Found that patients on kidney dialysis who undergo radical cystectomy for bladder cancer have an overall survival rate of less than 15 percent at five years. (Scott C. Johnson, MD, Urology)

Found that allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is as effective a treatment for non-Hodgkin鈥檚 disease patients over 65 years of age as for younger patients. (Nirav Shah, MD, Medicine-Hematology/Oncology)

 Developed a new chemotherapy regiment found to be effective in treating advanced ovarian cancer. (Denise Uyar, MD, Obstetrics & Gynecology)

Determined that gold nanoparticles can be used effectively in ablation therapy for colon cancer. (Sarah B. White, MD, Radiology)

Found that girls who suffer concussion may have more severe symptoms that last longer when compared to boys. (Shayne Fehr, MD, Orthopaedics 鈥 Pediatric)

Found that children with low-risk penicillin allergy symptoms whose test results were negative for penicillin allergy tolerated a penicillin challenge without a severe allergic reaction developing. (David Vyles, DO, Pediatrics 鈥 Emergency Medicine)

Found that in a study using rats, artificial sweeteners caused changes leading to diabetes and obesity. (Brian Hoffmann, PhD, Biomedical Engineering 鈥 MCW/Marquette)

Identified link between abdominal aortic calcification and risk of future heart attacks (Stacy D. O鈥機onnor, MD, MPH, Radiology)

Found that adverse childhood events increases the risk for prediabetes markers in adults. (Jennifer Campbell, MPH 鈥 Medicine)

Determined that repeat hits to the head cause greater brain damage than a single concussion. (Brian D. Stemper, PhD, Biomedical Engineering, with colleagues at Marquette University)

Linked the increased incidence of cyclic vomiting syndrome to increased use of marijuana in states where marijuana is legal. (Sanjay Bhandri, MD, Medicine-General Internal)

Found that 40% of Wisconsin homicide suspects and 30% of homicide victims would have been legally prohibited from possessing firearms. (Jennifer Hernandez-Meier, Emergency Medicine 鈥 Injury Center)

Determined that teenagers and women are at higher risk for iron deficiency following blood donations. (Alan E. Mast, MD, PhD, Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy)

2019
Found that African-American liver transplant recipients may live longer if the donated organ they received was from an African-American. (T. Clark Gamblin, MD, Surgery 鈥 Surgical Oncology)

Discovered that sinks adjacent to hospital-room toilets harbored the dangerous Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase bacteria that can cause health care-associated infections such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound infections or surgical site infections. (Blake Buchan, PhD, Pathology; Silvia Munoz-Price, MD, PhD, Medicine-Infectious Disease)

Determined that preoperative opioid consumption may lead to greater opioid requirements following rotator cuff surgery. (Steven Grindel, MD, Orthopaedic Surgery)

Developed Skyrizi, a drug for the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis, which received FDA-approval. (Kenneth Gordon, MD, Dermatology)

Found significant levels of aortic regurgitation in patients following TAVR noninvasive surgery for aortic valve replacement. (Divyanshu Mohananey, MD, Medicine-Cardiovascular)

Discovered high incidence of pepsin in the saliva of asthmatics, increasing their risk of gastrointestinal disorders. (Valerie Bonne, MD, Medicine 鈥 Pulmonary, and colleagues in Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences)

Found that even mild brain injuries create lasting functional deficits. (Lindsay Nelson, PhD, Neurosurgery)

Found that teenage men who take PrEP to protect against HIV exposure may not recover from bone density loss. (Peter Havens, MD, Pediatrics 鈥 Infectious Diseases)

Discovered that race-matched liver transplants improve the survival outcomes for black patients with liver cancer. (T. Clark Gamblin, MD, Surgery-Surgical Oncology)

Discovered that levels of two of the biomarkers -- interleukin 6 and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist -- were higher among high school and college athletes with concussion six hours after the injury compared to players in the control group. The discovery helps determine which players require more rest following concussions. (Timothy B. Meier, PhD, Neurosurgery)

Discovered that Google accurately translates research information from non-English medical journals. (Jeffrey Jackson, MD, Medicine-General Internal)

Found that patients with age-related macular degeneration could self-operate an optical coherence tomography device at home. (Judy E. Kim, MD, Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences)

Determined that the vast majority of research studies on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) are using inaccurate data due to not accounting for individual differences in eye size. OCTA allows for non-invasive visualization of the retinal blood vessels. (Joseph Carroll, PhD, Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, with colleagues at the University of Western Australia)

Determined that a single dose of HPV vaccine provides with women with the same protection as multiple doses of the vaccine. (Alan G. Nyitray, PhD, Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, with a co-author at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston)


2020-present

2020
Discovered that living near a farm increases the risk of contracting c difficile. (L. Silvia Munoz-Price, MD, PhD, Medicine 鈥 Infectious Diseases)

Found that higher total body irradiation dose appeared associated with significantly higher risk for nonrelapse mortality and overall mortality among patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent reduced-intensity conditioning prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (Mehdi Hamadani, MD, Medicine 鈥 General Internal)

Discovered the molecular basis for how a shapeshifting immune system protein called XCL1 evolved from a single-shape ancestor hundreds of millions of years ago. In the process they uncovered principles that scientists can use to design purpose-built nanoscale transformers for use as biosensors, components of molecular machines, and even therapeutics. (Brian Volkman, PhD, Biochemistry; Acacia Dishman, MD, PhD student)

Found that women with a history of gestational diabetes were 50% more likely to have a short interval between pregnancies (18 months or less) compared with women without gestational diabetes. (Ronald Anguzu, MD. PhD, MPH, Institute for Health and Equity 鈥 Epidemiology)

Identified a lack of knowledge about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as the main barrier preventing health care providers from prescribing the medication which protects patients from HIV infection. (Steven A. John, PhD, MPH; Katherine Quinn, PhD; Jennifer Walsh, PhD; all in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine 鈥 Center for AIDS Intervention Research; and Andrew Petroll, MS, MD, Medicine 鈥 Infectious Diseases)

Found that higher total body irradiation dose was associated with a significantly higher risk for death in patients with non-Hodgkin鈥檚 lymphoma. (Mehdi Hamadani, MD, Medicine 鈥 General Internal)

Developed a treatment protocol for cardiac arrest that uses a life support machine to replicate the functions of the heart and lungs significantly improving the survival of people who suffer this usually fatal condition. (Tom P. Aufderheide, MD, Emergency Medicine)

Determined that the endothelial protein C receptor plays an essential role in the maintenance of pregnancy. (Rashmi Sood, PhD; Michelle Castillo, PhD; Jason Jarzembowski, MD, PhD, all in Pathology 鈥 Pediatric)

Found that children who play team sports are more likely to excel at cardiovascular fitness and endurance and demonstrate lower body fat percentage. (Benjamin Brett, PhD, Neurology and in Neurosurgery)

Identified a new immune gene signature 鈥淚mmuneCells.Sig鈥 for predicting the clinical response of melanoma patients to immunotherapy. (Donghai Xiang, PhD, Yian Wang, PhD, and Ming You, MD, PhD; all from Pharmacology and Toxicology)

Determined that patients with Parkinson鈥檚 disease have higher rates of stroke and lower rates of coronary artery disease and vascular disease risk factors. (Ashraf Abugroun, MD, Medicine 鈥 General Internal)

Found social network interventions increased pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness, interest, and use among African American men who have sex with men. (Jeffrey A. Kelly, PhD: Yuri Amirkhanian, PhD; and Jennifer Walsh, PhD: all in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine 鈥 Center for AIDS Intervention Research)

Determined that a new diagnostic test to determine Cushing鈥檚 disease fails to meet the standards of currently used methods. (Hershel Raff, PhD; Joshua Kannankeril, MD; Ty Carroll, MD; James W. Findling, MD; and Jonathan Phillips, BS; all in Medicine 鈥 Endocrinology and Molecular Medicine)

Found that community-driven vacant lot to garden conversions were associated with slight reductions in crime. (David R. Beam, MD; Kirsten Beyer, PhD, MPH; and Jared Olson, PhD; all in the Institute for Health and Equity 鈥 Epidemiology)

Discovered three proteins that are elevated after a concussion. The discovery may help distinguish athletes who have suffered a concussion and those who have not. (Michael McCrea, PhD, Neurosurgery)

Found that a noninvasive device delivering percutaneous electrical nerve field stimulation to the external ear safely reduced abdominal pain and improved quality of life in adolescents with irritable bowel syndrome. (Katja Kovacic, MD, Pediatrics 鈥 Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition)

Determined that prevalence of pediatric feeding disorders in the United States rivals that of commonly diagnosed conditions such as eating disorders and autism. Pediatric feeding disorders are identified as impaired oral intake that is not age-appropriate. (Karlo Kovacic, MD, and Praveen S. Goday, MD, both in Pediatrics 鈥 Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition; Lisa E. Rein, ScM, and Aniko Szabo, PhD, both in the Institute for Health and Society 鈥 Biostatistics; and colleagues at Arizona State University and Marquette University)

Found that botulinum toxin benefits patients with adult neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. (R. Corey O鈥機onnor, MD, Urology)

2021
Discovered that contemporary mortgage lending bias (known as 鈥渞edlining鈥) leads to poorer breast cancer survival among older women in the U.S. (Kirsten M. Beyer, PhD, MPH, MS, Institute for Health and Equity 鈥 Epidemiology, and Ann B. Nattinger, MD, MPH, Medicine 鈥 General Internal)

Determined that maintenance therapy with Lynparza (olaparib), a targeted cancer therapy known as a PARP inhibitor, was found to add years to the lives of women with advanced ovarian cancer. (William Bradley, MD, Obstetrics and Gynecology)

Generated mice with an improved hormone profile that supports growth and metastatic spread of implanted human breast tumors. (Hallgeir Rui, MD, PhD, Pathology)

Found that COVID-19 could cause long-term problems with the functioning of blood vessels, potentially increasing the risk of heart disease. (Yoshinori Nishijima, PhD, Cardiovascular Center)

Detected new leukocyte-linked loci utilizing multi-ancestry genomes. (Paul Auer, PhD, Biostatistics and collaborators worldwide)

Found that opioid-related mortality among sickle cell disease patients remains low with no significant increase during 2013 to 2019. (Lana Mucalo, MD; Amanda Brandow, DO; and Ashima Singh, PhD; all in Pediatrics 鈥 Hematology/Oncology)

Discovered that blocking transient receptor potential canonical 5 (TRPC5) activity, a non-opioid based target, reversed touch pain in mouse models of sickle cell disease, migraine, chemotherapy-related pain, and surgical pain. (Cheryl L. Stucky, PhD; Katelyn Sadler, PhD; and Francie Moehring, PhD; all of the Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy)

Found that people with sickle cell disease who become infected with COVID-19 are at a high risk for a severe case of the disease and a high fatality rate. (Julie Panepinto, MD, and Lana Mucalo, MD, both Pediatrics 鈥 Hematology/Oncology)

Determined that the recovery time for college athletes experiencing a concussion takes up to 28 days, up from the suggested normal recovery time of 14 days. (Michael McCrea, PhD, Neurosurgery; with colleagues at the University of Michigan, Indiana University, and the NCAA-Department of Defense Concussion Assessment, Research and Education Consortium)

Found lower in-hospital mortality for patients receiving transcatheter aortic valve replacement compared to surgical aortic valve replacement. (Ashraf Abugroun, MD, Medicine 鈥 General Internal)

Discovered that the incidence of concussions and head impact exposure in collegiate football is disproportionately higher in preseason than the regular season, and most concussions occurred during football practices. (Michael McCrea, PhD, Neurosurgery)

Determined that patients with multiple sclerosis may be more likely to develop psoriasis if they take certain B cell-depleting therapies. (Ahmed Obeidat, MD, PhD, Neurology)

Found the odds of having a stroke are much higher for former National Football League players with 10 or more concussions. (Benjamin Brett, Neurology and in Neurosurgery)

Determined that decisions about withdrawing life-sustaining treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) should not be made in the early days following injury. Researchers found that among the patients in a vegetative state, 1 in 4 "regained orientation" -- meaning they knew who they were, their location and the date -- within 12 months of their injury. (Michael McCrea, PhD, Neurosurgery; with collaborators at the University of California San Francisco and at Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital)

2022
Discovered the areas of the brain where the meanings of words are retrieved from memory and processed during language comprehension. (Leonardo Fernandino, PhD, Neurology and in Biomedical Engineering)

Found that there was a greater risk for errors by neuroradiologists with high volumes of readings. (Vladimir Ivanovic, MD, Radiology)

In a rat model, demonstrated that glaucoma gene therapy is beneficial in lowering ocular hypertension. (Daniel M. Lipinski, MSc, DPhil; and Kristina J. Chern, PhD candidate; both in Cell Biology, Neurobiology, and Anatomy, and in Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences)

Found that pediatric and young adult survivors of acute leukemia who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation appeared to be at increased risk for late mortality. (Larisa Broglie, MD, MS, Pediatrics 鈥 Blood and Marrow Transplantation)

Determined that socioeconomic disadvantage among hematopoietic stem cell transplant donors was found to result in poorer outcomes among transplant recipients. (Jennifer M. Knight, MD, MS, Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, and in Microbiology & Immunology)

Found that Black multiple myeloma patients have better survival rates compared to their White patient counterparts when treated equally. (Jing Dong, PhD, and Parameswaran Hari, MD, both Medicine 鈥 Hematology/Oncology)

Discovered DNA methylation in circulating leukocytes is a novel biomarker in multiple myeloma. (Sigfried Janz, MD, and Anita D鈥橲ouza, MD, both Medicine 鈥 Hematology/Oncology)

Determined that COVID-19 patients who activated remote patient monitoring had a 32% lower rate of being hospitalized, and when hospitalized, had stays that were on average 2.7 days shorter with fewer days in intensive care. (Bradley Crotty, MD, MPH, Medicine 鈥 General Internal)

Found that two sugar substitutes (acesulfame potassium and sucralose) disrupt the function of a protein that plays a vital role in liver detoxification and the metabolism of certain drugs. (Laura Danner, Graduate Student in Biochemistry)

Determined that people with high cholesterol levels are 2.3 times more likely to die from COVID-19. (Ze Zheng, PhD, Medicine 鈥 Endocrinology and Molecular Medicine)

Uncovered a unique molecule that influences host metabolism. Specifically, the molecule resides in bacterial communities within the human body and can influence resting metabolic rates within those communities. (John R. Kirby, PhD, Microbiology & Immunology)

Determined that adults living in ZIP codes with a lower median household income are at greater risk for increased hospital length of stay after cardiac surgery compared with patients living in areas with a higher median income. (Benjamin Seadler, MD, Surgery)

Found that Chinese and Japanese adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are less likely to start medication within the first year of diagnosis than other racial or ethnic groups. (Aaron N Winn, PhD, 麻豆学生精品版Pharmacy School, and colleagues at Kaiser Permanente)

Identified the enzyme thioredoxin reductase as playing a key role in protecting beta cells from oxidative stress and in the regulation of insulin secretion. (Jennifer Stancill, PhD, Biochemistry)

Determined that weight loss supplements fail to help people lose weight. (Srividya Kidambi, MD, Medicine 鈥 Endocrinology and Molecular Medicine)

A 20 year long-term overview study identified quality of life improvements achieved following parathyroidectomy for people with hyperparathyroidism. (Douglas B. Evans, MD; Tina Yen, MD; and Jennifer Livschitz, BS; all in Surgery)

Identified hundreds of likely causal genes underlying the genetic risk for coronary artery disease. (Paul Auer, PhD, Biostatistics)

Determined that energy intake and diet quality do not mediate the association between food insecurity and obesity in U.S. adults. (Lisa Morselli, MD. Medicine 鈥 Endocrinology and Molecular Medicine)

Identified how praziquantel targets a protein in parasitic worms in the treatment of schistosomiasis (鈥渟nail fever鈥). (Jonathan Marchant, PhD, Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy; with colleagues at Texas Biomedical Research Institute)

Determined that conceptual knowledge is tied to perceptual and experiential information. (Leonardo Fernandino, PhD, Neurology and in Biomedical Engineering)

Learned that self-reported mild cognitive impairment prevalence and dementia prevalence were higher in former National Football League players than national estimates and were associated with numerous personal factors, including mood-related disorders and a high number of self-reported concussions. (Michael McCrea, PhD, Neurosurgery; with colleagues at the University of North Carolina)

Found a significantly higher presence of Epstein-Barr virus among patients with multiple sclerosis compared with controls but no difference in the frequency of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. (Ahmed Obeidat, MD, PhD, Neurology) 

2023
Determined that patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) within four weeks of SARS-CoV-2 infection have an increased risk of death at 90 days after HSCT. (Meera Mohan, MD, Medicine 鈥 Hematology/Oncology)

Discovered PD-L2 as a therapy-relevant marker to identify patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer who may benefit from new immunotherapies. (Hallgeir Rui, MD, PhD, Pathology)